April 2005 Archives

CCNA Exam Advice

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TIPPINST - We have just started our final semester of CCNA i.e. CCNA 4. Our students are very interested in the 640-801 exam and what is expected of them.
Given the fact that you have about 90 mins to complete 50 odd questions and a number of e-sims to carry out it can be a stressful experience.

There are numerous websites on the internet that offer braindumps or answers to cisco questions but students should be beware as the quality of the questions and answers vary dramtically. I have come across websites that supply practice questions only to find that the answers are incorrect. Trying to prepare for the cisco exam by only reading these questions is a dangerous route to take. Students must be very familiar with all aspects of subnetting and routing configuration commands. The big downfall for students is not their lack of knowledge but the fact that they don't do the following:

1 - Read the question carefully so as to ascertain what is being asked

2 - Watch your time, if you spend too long on the e-sims you will not have enough time to complete the exam

3 - save your work on the e-sim and verify that what you have configured works

Finally practice your subnetting !

Han's Irish Bouzouki

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TIPPINST - If you have an interest in the Bouzouki or one of its close relatives such as the mandola or cittern, then you probably are aware of the lack of information about playing the instruments, or buying them.

Han Speek realised this several years ago and decided to remedy the situation by creating his own webpage. To quote Han himself

"I have chosen to dedicate a page to the Irish bouzouki because there seems to be very little information available, even though most people recognize the fact that the instrument has earned it's place in the tradition"

The site also has a list of bouzouki makers broken down by country, Mike Regan from Castlebridge in Wexford is missing from the Irish luthiers but apart from that its pretty comprehensive.

Han's Irish Bouzouki Homepage

Untangling Wireless Protocols

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TIPPINST - 18 months ago I purchased some bluetooth pcmcia and usb adapters for testing and research purposes. They sat quietly on the shelf in our datacomms lab and led a quiet life. This has all changed in the last few months as my colleagues have discovered bluetooth and wish to experiment with it. The main driver for this adoption is the fact that their new mobile phones/ pda's support bluetooth and they want to upload and retrieve video, photos and mp3's.

For those of you out there who are still trying to get to grips with bluetooth I can recommend Edwards Baig article on USAToday he discussed bluetooth and makes a passing reference to zigbee.

Making sense of life without wires

TIPPINST - Kilanerin the small parish in north county wexford where I grew up will be empty next Sunday, as several local football players will be playing in the Allianz National league football final against Armagh in Croke Park. Matty Forde (Wexford 1st football all star), his brother pat, John Hegarty and Jim Darcy will line out on Sunday. It going to be a tense exciting, exhilarting adrenaling pumping match (and thats just from the Wexford fans perspective).

Best of luck to all the lads, Loch Garman abu !!!

Amazon to establish a NOC in the digital Hub

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TIPPINST - I was delighted to hear that Amazon are going to be tenants of the digital hub in dublin. They estimate that within two years they will be employing 25 people 70% of them being graduates to manage their worldwide networks.

Digital Hub Press Release

Microsoft to support Linux

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TIPPINST-Microsoft are bowing to the inevitable and will be supporting linux using their virtual server product. The have also been working quiet closing with Sun so as to support their solaris product.

Link

Site Remodelled

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TIPPINST-Decided to give the site a make over. It was a fun experience trying to remember how to use adobe photoshop and movable type style sheet basics.

The file you need to work with is stylesheet in my case the background statement under #banner was updated as follows
background:#216139 url("http://www.irishsilicon.com/archives/tile.jpg") repeat;

TIPPINST - Jamie Smyth in the Irish Times reports on the digiweb controversy. About 450 firms have been with out access since Monday (18th of April). Digiwebs are in dispute with their satellite provider SatLynx.

broadband community scheme - Press sightings

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TIPPINST - The Waterford News and Star have an informative article on the community broadband scheme. In the article wireless is mentioned as being the technology of choice as far as the county council is concerned.

Its encouraging to see that Wi-Max is being pushed out by Intel into mainstream production, in the future it will probably replace Wi-fi due to its ability to cope with troublesome terrain such as hills, valleys etc

Network DRAM's a solution for high speed networking

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TIPPINST - New and alternative designs are badly needed in order to allow line rates to continue to grow. Mike Pearson in Commsdesign.com outlines how network DRAM's can faciliate this. From reading this article I discovered that bus widths don't have to adhere to the rule of powers of 2. In fact buswitdths of 144 and 288 are being considered.

Network DRAMs Shine in Datapath Designs

Agere announce two new network processor chips

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TIPPINST - Agere systems a network processor manufacturer recently announced two new NP chips. The Payload family dynasty is being continued with the Advanced PayloadPlus 300 (APP300) network processor chip, a new addition of sorts is thek layer processor (LLP) chip.

In the press release they claim that "Used in access equipment, these devices can reduce software application code size by 30 times and save up to eight staff years of engineering resources". They also refer to the advantages being offered to architects who are trying to develop solutions for Quality of Service, IPTV.

The claims are nothing new and are part of the reason why network processors are so attractive, I think Agere should publicise their OO development framework. This in my opinion is their hidden asset. As part of my PhD research into network processors I have reviewed their architecture in detail and was left with the impression that their system was designed with programmers in mind.

Communities are doing it for themselves

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TIPPINST -The 2nd phase of the community broadband scheme is coming to a close and from talking to various people at public meetings it seems that there is a very strong interest in Tipperary. Neighbouring communities such as Holycross, Kilcommon, Doon, Borrisoleigh are all in the process of finalising applications. County wide I would estimate that there are 15 - 20 community groups that are interested.

When you compare this to phase 1 which had 33 groups across the whole country it really highlights the strong interest in broadband. Interest in Upperchurch is quiet high when compared to some other communities, I think this is in part to the IT centre in the local school which has been providing email, ECDL, internet training for the past 4 years as of last year over 300 people had passed through their doors. Pretty impressive for a rural hinterland community.

These community schemes I think are a good inniative as its puts the onus on the shoulders of the community to do something about it. Having a broadband coordinator for the area is also an immense help as they can assist and drive the scheme.

It look like by September we will have 512K up and down using Wi-fi, roll on the summer !

Wanted - light weight pda that does everything

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TIPPINST - I am trying to decide on a light weight pda that has the following properties

1- Light weight with a keyboard
2 - supports real player, java
3 - GPRS, 802.11b, Irda, Bluetooth
4 - colour screen, camera
5 - fast boot up

Bernie uses a nokia communicator 9500 which fulfills most of these requirements but I am interested to see if there are alternatives out there.

A pda that caught my attention was the Sharp Zaurus sl-cl 1000. We have the original Sharp Zaurus here in TIPPINST and we like them.

The features are as follows
# 416MHz Intel XScale PXA270
# 64MB of SDRAM and 16MB of Flash ROM
# integrated 128MB User Flash
# Linux 2.4.20 (Sharp ROM 1.45 JP)
# 3.7inch 640 x 480 LCD with 65k colors (backlit)
# QWERTY keypad with a five-way navigator control
# Infrared port
# 1 SD, 1 CF slot (for WLAN, Bluetooth etc.)
# USB cable (can be used as an USB hard disk drive)
# Stereo headphone connector
# Syncs with Macintosh through ZMacSync, Linux and PC
# Weight: ca. 278g
# Dimensions: ca. 124 x 87 x 25 mm
# Battery: 3.7V, 1800mAh LiIon
# Operation time: approx. 7h

Handheld-linux.com a germany company import them from Japan and tweak them so that they have an english interface.

Any suggestions would be welcome

Mutating evolving and doing weird stuff

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TIPPINST- My genetic algorithm is finally "alive" and up and running the problem is it will take a while for the results to come back. I have no real idea how long as each entity will run for a different length of time performing the necessary math etc. So I am experiencing mixed feelings at the moment, pride that its running, curiosity as to what its up to, and impatience !

TIPPINST- I commented earlier this week on the release of phase 1 community broadband figures. 43% of communities elected to use satellite as their preferred method of access. I was quiet surprised by the high adoption rate.

I can understand if you are in a rural area with no other option than to use satellite, what has me surprised are some of the benefits that you miss out on if you do choose satellite.

There are two big problems with satellite they are bit error rate and latency. The latter is usually more noticable than the former. From talking to people who have employed satellite in business and educational premises, they have remarked upon how it can be slow.

There is confusion as to how much latency there really is, ildana.net point out that delay is 240ms (0.24 seconds) this is true based on the maths of calculating the length of time it takes a signal to travel from satellite earth station to another

(22300 miles uplink + 22300 miles downlink) / 186000 miles per second = 0.24 seconds (240 ms).

This answer however is deceptive as is does not take into account the additional time required for processing by electronic equipment at the originating, receiving, and repeater stations, which adds to the total delay. In practice, round trip transaction time can easily exceed 750 milliseconds

Satellite Internet access providers such as vsat systems are more open about the problem and point that the latency is in the 600 ms range , they offer tcp spoofing as a means to combat this problem.

So the 750 ms delay that satellite experience does have an impact on certain technologies, these include Voice Over IP (products such as skype), video conferencing and VPNS.

The phrase caveat emptor springs to mind when considering broadband products, all aspects must be considered. If VOIP, video conferencing and VPNS are not a requirement then satellite might well be the suitable choice for you.

Numa Numa - Gary Brolsam

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TIPPINST- Gary Brolsam is an internet celebrity thanks to his video of lip synching to a Romanian techno song entitled, “Dragostea Din Tei”, or the English-translated, “Love Among the Linden Trees.”

It is a pure uninhibited performance, guaranteed to make you smile.

Click here to view the video

TIPPINST - Now that it looks like that Upperchurch will soon have broadband, my focus has turned towards how skype VOIP can be integrated into the average household with the minimum fuss.

To my surprise the product I need is not yet available. A number of companies have developed skype/analog phones or gateways with usb connectors so as to use skype. The bottom line however is that you must have your gateway connected to a pc running skype. This is not very practical. What is needed is a wireless product that does the following:

Base station communicates using wirless to your broadband router. The base station would have a linux micro kernel with skype preloaded.

The Base station should also have a analog phone line input.

The handset would be cordless and the user can select either to use analog or skype. Siemens have a handset in test development that already does this the Giga handset M34. You still require a pc however.

This simple product would have a siginficant impact on your phone bill. This would be an interesting project for some one out there.

TIPPINST- We are pleased to announce that we have identified a broadband provider who will be in a position to bring broadband to the Upperchurch-Drombane area. We received a strong level of interest from people who were interested in broadband. The North Tipperary Broadband Coordinator provided us with a list of potential broadband companies and we evaluated these company’s broadband products so as to identify a broadband service that would be suitable for the locality.

The criteria used for evaluating these broadband services included amongst others, cost, speed, technology, customer support and expertise. The broadband provider chosen is a local Tipperary company called Premier broadband (www.premierbroadband.net). The details of their service is as follows:

Cost domestic €29.99 per month (includes VAT), installation €200 (includes VAT)

Connection Speed 512K up, 512 down

Technology Wi-fi (Wireless)

Term of contract 3 month contract for domestic users

Customer Support
Telephone support 24/7


We will now be submitting the list of interested people to the North Tipp broadband Coordinator (Anthony O’Reilly) this Friday (15th of April 05). Premier broadband will be carrying out a survey of the area shortly to identify the equipment required to bring broadband to the interested people. It is envisaged that broadband will roll out over the summer months.

We would like to thank all people who expressed an interest in acquiring broadband, with out your interest this would not have been possible.

utilising google ads to recruit team members

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I had to do a double take on my website today as I noticed a google ad looking for softball players for a dublin team.

The page is being hosted on craigslist.org. This a new offshoot for advertising, I can see some interesting variations

e.g. Do you have Irish Grandparents ? international soccer players apply here

mycokemusic offers serious value for money

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I have managed to keep some of the ring pull tabs and try out the mycokemusic web site. To date I have earned 48 euro approx. The range of music is not extensive but there are some hidden gems that offer value.

What is annoying however is that not all albums can be purchased, this forces you to buy tracks individually.

The best buy however was the Nirvana box set of 61 tracks "With the lights out" this was priced at 11.99 !

You really have to wade through the site however to find what you are looking for If you are a fan of Queen they have all their albums up for purchase.

The offer expires on May 7th 2005.

The first phase of community broadband schemes that have been approved have been published to the Department of Communications, Marine and natural resources website

33 projects were approved and it is interesting to analyse the technologies employed.

Satellite - 15 communities - 43 %
Fixed Wireless Access - 11 communities - 33 %
ADSL - 7 communities - 24 %

The majority of satellite access was provided by Ildana Teoranta

2 of the schemes are being run by the community itself which is a big undertaking, it will be interesting to see how they get on, I wish them the best of luck. These two schemes opted for Fixed Wireless Access.

In most cases where ADSL was employed the provider was Eircom.

Digiweb and last mile wireless were the two main fixed wireless access providers.

We are currently in the process of applying for funding under phase 2 of this scheme. We hope to have selected our broadband provider by the end of this week.

Area County Community Group Service Provider Solution Proposed
Ennistymon Clare North West Clare Broadband Anorth West Clare Broadband / AI Bridges FWA
Ballygarvan Cork Ballygarvan Community Broadband Co-operative Ballygarvan Community Broadband Co-operative FWA
Crosshaven Cork Crosshaven Community Association Eircom ADSL
Dungloe Donegal Forbairt Na Rosann Teoranta Eircom ADSL
Gaoth Dobhair Donegal Gaoth Dobhair Chamber of Commerce and Uduras Na Gaeltachta Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Killybegs Donegal Killybegs Parish Council & Development Association Eircom ADSL
Ahascragh, Taghmaconnell & Clonbrock Galway Ahascragh Community Development Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Kinvara Galway Kinvara Network Co-operative   FWA
Mount Bellew Galway Galway Telework Co-op Society Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Oughterard Galway Oughterard Local Community Council Eircom ADSL
Ballyferriter Kerry Udaras Na Gaeltachta & Comhar Chumann Forbartha Chorca Duibhne Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Boherbue Kerry Udaras Na Gaeltachta & Comhar Chumann Forbartha Chorca Duibhne Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Brandon Kerry Udaras Na Gaeltachta & Comhar Chumann Forbartha Chorca Duibhne Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Cahersiveen Kerry Cahersiveen Broadband Partnership Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Kinard Kerry Udaras Na Gaeltachta & Comhar Chumann Forbartha Chorca Duibhne Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Ventry Kerry Udaras Na Gaeltachta & Comhar Chumann Forbartha Chorca Duibhne Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Castlecomer Kilkenny Castlecomer District Community Development Network Eircom ADSL
Abbeyleix Laois Abbeyleix Parish Employment Committee Digiweb Ltd. FWA
Mountrath Laois Whitehorse Community Development Project Ltd. Digiweb Ltd. FWA
Stradbally Laois Stradbally Development Association Digiweb Ltd. FWA
Kiltyclogher Leitrim Kiltycashel Project, Kiltyclogher Community Council Broughton ITS Satellite
Ballyneety Limerick Ballyhoura Community Development Ildana Teoranta Satellite
Hospital & Knocklong Limerick Hospital Community Council & Knocklong Development Association Ildana Teoranta Satellite

The network processor workshop which used to be part of the HPCA programme has now spun off in to its own independent conference. I have attended this workshop for the past number of years and found it beneficial as its the only conference dedicated to this area. The topics this yera have been expanded to cover.

Areas of interest include, but are not limited to:
* Network/communications processors
* Intelligent co-processors
* Router architectures
* Switch fabrics/interconnection networks
* Link scheduling, processor/thread scheduling, switch scheduling
* Network adaptors
* Application-specific networks (e.g. SAN)
* Programmable /extensible networks
* Secure communication
* Traffic management
* Packet classification
* Content inspection and filtering
* Energy-efficient designs


Important Dates

Paper registration and abstract: May 2, 2005
Submission deadline: May 9, 2005
Author notification: July 30, 2005
Final camera-ready copy: September 6, 2005

Conference Date
October 26-28, 2005
Princeton, New Jersey, USA

http://www.ancsconf.org


Full text of annoucement follows
October 26-28, 2005
Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Sponsored by:
ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Architecture (SIGARCH)
ACM Special Interest Group on Communications (SIGCOMM)
IEEE Computer Society Tech. Committee on Computer Architecture
IEEE Communications Society Tech. Committee on Computer Communications

Intel Corporation (Gold Sponsor)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

ANCS is a new research conference that focuses on the design of the
hardware and software components used to create modern communication
networks. The combination of increasing network line speeds and
expanding functional requirements pose continuing and growing
challenges for system designers. New technology elements, including
network processors, content addressable memories, configurable logic
and special-purpose components offer new opportunities for meeting
these challenges, but also raise a variety of new issues. ANCS focuses
on architectures for networking and communication in the broad sense,
including novel architectures, architectural support for advanced
communication, algorithms and protocols for advanced architectures,
software and applications for next-generation networking
architectures, and methodology and benchmarking for evaluating
advanced communication architectures.

Areas of interest include, but are not limited to:
* Network/communications processors
* Intelligent co-processors
* Router architectures
* Switch fabrics/interconnection networks
* Link scheduling, processor/thread scheduling, switch scheduling
* Network adaptors
* Application-specific networks (e.g. SAN)
* Programmable /extensible networks
* Secure communication
* Traffic management
* Packet classification
* Content inspection and filtering
* Energy-efficient designs

We particularly encourage submissions containing highly original
ideas. Submissions will be judged on originality, significance,
interest, clarity, and correctness.

The PAPER DEADLINE for submissions is May 9, 2005 at 11:59PM PST
(US). NO FURTHER EXTENSIONS WILL BE GRANTED. ANCS will use
double-blind reviewing, so submitted papers should not include the
authors' names.

Paper registration and submission must be done electronically through
EDAS (edas.info). Registration, including the abstract, must be
completed no later than May 2, 2005 at 11:59PM PDT (US). All papers
must be submitted in PDF format for letter-size paper. Submissions
must be viewable by Adobe Acrobat Reader (version 5.0 or higher) and
should not exceed 7,000 words or 10 pages of conference paper format
using 10 pt fonts. Submissions exceeding the required limit will not
be reviewed by the program committee. Camera-ready versions of the
accepted papers will be required to use the ACM SIG format
(www.acm.org/sigs/pubs/proceed/template.html).

Like other conferences, ANCS requires that papers not be submitted
simultaneously to any other conferences or publications, that
submissions not be previously published, and that accepted papers not
be subsequently published elsewhere.

All submissions will be acknowledged by July 30, 2005. If your
submission is not acknowledged by this date, please contact the
program chairs promptly at ancsTPC@arl.wustl.edu.

Important Dates

Paper registration and abstract: May 2, 2005
Submission deadline: May 9, 2005
Author notification: July 30, 2005
Final camera-ready copy: September 6, 2005

Tutorials

A series of tutorials will be held immediately preceding the
symposium. Tutorial proposals will be accepted until June 30, 2005. If
you wish to give a tutorial (1/2 or 1 day), email a proposal to the
Tutorials Chair (Erik Johnson, Erik.Johnson@intel.com). For tutorials,
the proposal must include title, brief description of topics to be
covered, and bio of the speakers.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

General Chair: Alan Berenbaum, Consultant

Steering Committee:

Alan Berenbaum, Consultant
Patrick Crowley, Washington Univ. at St. Louis
Mark Franklin, Washington Univ. at St. Louis
Haldun Hadimioglu, Polytechnic Univ.
Nick McKeown, Stanford Univ.
Peter Z. Onufryk, IDT
K. K. Ramakrishnan, AT&T Labs

Program Co-Chairs:

Kai Li, Princeton University
Jonathan Turner, Washington University at St. Louis

Program Committee:

Andrew Campbell, Columbia Univ.
Patrick Crowley, Washington Univ. at St. Louis
Cezary Dubnicki, NEC
Hans Eberle, Sun Microsystems
Dirk Grunwald, Univ. Of Colorado
Roch Guerin, Univ. of Pennsylvania
T.V. Lakshman, Bell Labs
Dan Lenoski, Cisco Systems
Bill Mangione-Smith, UCLA
Kenneth McKenzie, Georgia Tech.
Nick McKeown, Stanford Univ.
Peter Onufryk, IDT
Li-Shuian Peh, Princeton Univ.
Mohammad Peyravian, IBM
Henning Schulzrinne, Columbia Univ.
Steve Scott, Cray
Dimitrious Stiliadis, Bell Labs
Ion Stoica, UC Berkeley
Chuck Thacker, Microsoft
Harrick Vin, UT Austin
Tilman Wolf, UM Amherst
Raj Yavatkar, Intel
Hui Zhang, CMU

Robocode 05 - Veni, Vidi, Vici

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roboc.jpg

Recovering from Robocode today, Tipperary Institute emerged victorious in a very exciting final that went to a tie breaker scenario.

Our other events went well also, Brain Teasers and Need for Speed racing.

By my reckoning we gave out over 35 prizes. Great day , great to see some many people at TI.

A big thank you to all our sponsors, with out them it would not have happened.
To all the backroom team and to Bernie our enigmatic commentator, Bernie you could have a job doing WWF commentary if you wanted !

Aligning your Sat Dish for Free to Air Channels

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I spent the weekend installing my lidl free to air satellite system that I bought in December. I blame the weather, my 18 month old son and golf as the reasons for why I didn't do it sooner.

Wiring and mounting the dish was straight forward enough, the fun really began when I tried to align it to the Astra 2d satellite. 2 days later my neighbours were beginnning to wonder would I ever get it to work.

What I learned from the experience is the following.

1 - The arm holdinf the lnb must be horizontal !

2 - Face the dish due south

3 - Do not use the antenna settings when trying to align the dish, this was my downfall as I was being technically obsessed with trying to find a certain transponder rather than findinf channels. Instead select a channel from the preset list such as BBC 1 which operates on astra 2d.

4 - Move the dish left until signal to weak message appears (it appears in a red box, this can be spotted from a distance i.e. outside looking in through the window). When I say left I mean it from the perspective of standing with your back to the dish and facing the lnb.

5 - Carefully continue to move the dish left, remember it takes a few seconds for the reciever to pick up on the new dish alignment. When the BBC channel appears tighten bolts etc. and seal connection to lnb.

If you want CNN,MTV central, Euronews and Euro sport you will need to point the dish at astra 2A. This sat is to the right of astra 2d. Again same procedure select the channel Eurosport from your preloaded list and move the dish.

Dish Alignment Photos and more info

Hope this helps.

The latest book to occupy my overstuffed shelves is a book written by Kalyanmoy Deb and published by Wiley. Its title is "Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms" ISBN 0-471-87339-X

What I like about this book is that it provides a comprehensive overview of GA's as well as examples. Each concept is covered under the following headings

Hand Calculations
Computational Complexity
Advantages
Disadvantages
Simulation Results.

When you are trying to figure out which GA approach to use its great to have a book like this to guide you.

The quest for a phd continues...

My colleague Bernie Goldbach introduced me to launchast a few months ago, I even created my own station lnoonan_blog .

Because I am using the free version however I am subjected to fair bit of adverstising when I use the browser version of lauchcast. Imagine my joy when I accidently discovered that when I listen to my station using Instant Messenger that there are no Ads !!!

Ipod Shuffles up for grabs at robocode 05

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I am the proud (temporary) owner of 8 IPOD shuffles that will be up for grabs at Robocode 05.

Robocode is taking place this Thursday at Tipperay Institute and the final preparations are in full swing. We have more prizes and more competitions taking place this year. But you will have to wait until Thursday to discover what the extra "events" are.

Looking forward to meeting you all there.

Liam

Upperchurch Drombane Broadband Scheme Update

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We will be distributing information to people who we think may be interested in broadband. If you don't receive an information leaflet, they will be available in the following shops: O'Dwyers, Ryans and Fahy's of the metal bridge.

We have until Wed April 13th to finalise our list of people who are interested in broadband. The process after that will be as follows.

1 - The list of people who are interested will be provided to the North Tipp broadband coordinator.

2. - The North Tipp coordinator will identify a list of suitable broadband providers.

3- We will then hold discussions with the various broadband providers so as to identify a suitable provider.

4- Once we are happy with the provider , their service, pricing, support etc we will then proceed with the application.

5- At this point the identified broadband provider will carry out an initial survey so as to indentify what amount of equipment will be required to provide broadband to all interested people.

6 - The broadband provider will then complete a govt application form (called G1) which identifies what equipment will be required, suitable sites, planning issues if any as well as associated costs. This form will be co signed by the provider and the Upperchurch Drombane Broadband Scheme committee.

7 - If the application is succesful a roll out of the service will commence within ( 2 -3 months approx) At this stage people who are interested will be asked to take out a subscription to the service before roll out begins.

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